Luteolin is a flavonoid that is found in a variety of medicinal herbs. This flavonoid has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been used as a treatment for many diseases. In addition, luteolin may be beneficial in reducing the severity of allergic symptoms.
Luteolin is a natural polyphenol found in a wide variety of plants including spinach, kale, chard, berries and even corn. It is said to have a number of beneficial effects. It is considered to be a potent antioxidant that can help protect the body from free radical damage. It has also been shown to reduce anxiety and is even believed to have anti-cancer properties.
It has Anti-Cancer Properties
Luteolin is an antioxidant found in many fruits and vegetables. It has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. This compound inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells and suppresses invasion, metastasis and cell migration.
The anti-cancer properties of Luteolin are due to its ability to inhibit cell viability, induce apoptosis and reduce intracellular ROS production. These effects are especially potent in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, but not in normal human mammary epithelial cells.
The anti-cancer effects of Luteolin may be due to its inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT occurs in many cancer cells, which is associated with tumor invasion, metastasis and invasiveness. Inhibition of EMT by Luteolin may be related to its inhibition of HES1 expression, which promotes EMT.
Several studies have shown that Luteolin can inhibit growth of several cancer cell lines. A study in vitro and in vivo using both MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 cancer cells confirmed that Luteolin has inhibitory effects on the cell viability and cell cycle progression of these cells. Other studies have also indicated that Luteolin has inhibitory effects on cell migration.
These studies indicate that Luteolin has cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of cell migration and invasion is due to its effects on cell-cell interaction. Various carotenoids have been proposed as potential anti-cancer agents. However, the effects of Luteolin on human mammary tumor development and metastasis have not been studied extensively.
It reduces anxiety
If you are looking for a way to reduce your daily anxiety levels, you might want to consider adding a daily dose of Luteolin and Zeaxanthin to your diet. Not only are these two nutrients touted as eye health boosters, they also play a role in cognition. The University of Georgia cites their findings in the recent publication in Nutritional Neuroscience. This randomized double blind, placebo controlled study involved 59 healthy young adults between the ages of 18 and 25. In order to test their hypothesis, the researchers tasked the lucky ladies with a variety of psychological stress tests.
After 12 months of supplementation, all participants showed noticeable improvements in their moods and levels of the aforementioned stress hormones. A few aforementioned improvements were replicated after six months of treatment. However, the main gist of the study was that Luteolin and Zeaxanthin work in concert to fend off the dreaded stressors of modern life. Moreover, the combination has been clinically proven to ward off the symptoms of stress.
Besides, there is no doubt about it: the average person does not consume enough leafy greens on a daily basis. To ensure that your dietary and lifestyle choices are as optimal as possible, you should enlist the help of a doctor to devise an appropriate plan of action.
It has anti-estrogenic properties
Luteolin is a flavonoid that is a powerful inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and inhibits progestin-dependent VEGF secretion in breast cancer cells. It also has antioxidant potential twice that of Vitamin E.
Researchers from the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of California Irvine, and the Department of Biology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, China conducted a study to investigate the anti-estrogenic activity of luteolin and other phytochemicals. Results show that luteolin suppresses proliferation and apoptosis of cancer stem cells. Also, it is a potent inhibitor of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) and nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) pathways.
The researchers performed in vitro cytotoxicity assays using ethanolic extracts of citrus peels and two human estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell lines. They identified three flavonoids – naringenin, diosmin and quercetin – with cytotoxic activities against these cell lines. Genistein was a negative control.
To evaluate the safety profile of naringenin, IC50 values were calculated from three independent experiments. Data analysis was conducted using a two-way ANOVA. There was a significant difference between the means of all assays. Moreover, naringenin had a favorable safety profile.
As a positive control, estradiol was used. Phytoestrogens inhibit estradiol activity by 10%-44% at all concentrations. Estradiol binds to estrogen receptors (ER), which are translocated to the nucleus. This complex then interacts with estrogen response elements in target genes. In addition, it activates non-genomic signaling pathways, including the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. These pathways are known to elicit anti-aromatase activity.
It is a great antioxidant
Luteolin is an antioxidant and an anti-inflammatory agent that is found in many fruits, vegetables, and herbs, including celery, peppers, carrots, and onion leaves. It is used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of diseases related to oxidative injury.
Luteolin inhibits cell proliferation and survival pathways in tumor cells. These mechanisms include cell cycle inhibition, suppression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, inhibition of NF-kB pathway, and blocking of PI3K-Akt pathway. In addition, luteolin inhibits TNFa and IL-6, two pro-inflammatory cytokines that stimulate cancer cell growth and metastasis.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (*OH), are produced by cancer cells. Excessive production of ROS may be a risk factor for both cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, ROS may interfere with cellular signaling and oxidative stress.
The redox regulation activity of luteolin is important in understanding its potential as an anti-cancer agent. Studies have shown that luteolin increases HO-1 expression and decreases MDA levels.