Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) is a naturally occurring cofactor that is necessary for the body to maintain proper metabolism and energy production. It is a nutrient that is used in cellular processes, such as lipid and glucose synthesis, and the Krebs cycle. NAD is also involved in the repair of damaged DNA.
Boosts cellular metabolism
Nikotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) is a metabolite that plays a critical role in energy production and mitochondrial health. It’s part of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. In addition to its role in energy generation, NAD+ is also involved in protein deacetylation reactions and redox homeostasis.
There are several types of precursors for NAD+. These include vitamin B3 molecules, poly(ADPR) and the nicotinamide riboside (NR) found in yeast. However, there are only three classes of enzymes known to consume NAD+.
Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of NAD+ degrading enzymes has been shown to have positive effects on metabolic health. In preclinical models, NAD+ replenishment has been shown to reduce blood pressure and improve heart function. The most interesting effect was a marked improvement in myocardial performance.
While not all NAD+ precursors are created equal, the poly (ADPR)-derived nicotinamide riboside is the central mediator of cellular energy metabolism. This is also the most important and largest component in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which is a central metabolite involved in hundreds of metabolic processes.
One of the most impressive things about NAD+ is its ability to act as a a central redox cofactor in the mitochondria of mammals and plants. As a result, it’s involved in many key cellular processes and it’s hard to imagine a cell without it.
Enhances mitochondrial health
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, also known as NADH or NAAD, is a vital coenzyme in the human body. It plays a critical role in mitochondrial health and energy metabolism. NAD+ is a substrate of several important metabolic enzymes and participates in hundreds of processes.
Many enzymes in the mitochondrial energy production pathway use NAD in redox reactions. In fact, it is the most important carrier of electrons in the mitochondria. Besides its role in energy production, NAD+ is involved in the repair of DNA and protein deacetylation.
The cellular NAD+ level is influenced by the subcellular compartmentalization of the mitochondria. This determines its steady-state level. When mitochondrial oxygen levels are low, there is relative reduction in NAD+. Moreover, oxidative stress also decreases NAD+.
Depletion of NAD+ is associated with fatigue and other symptoms. Age-related NAD+ deficiencies are thought to be a result of impaired biosynthesis and/or increased activity of NAD+-consuming enzymes.
Research on NAD+ metabolism has mainly focused on the biosynthesis and degradation of NAD. However, recent studies have suggested that increased NAD+-consuming enzymes may play a significant role in age-related NAD+ deficiencies.
Among NAD+-consuming enzymes are poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP), which are involved in DNA repair. PARP inhibitors are being tested as anti-cancer treatments.
Improves the insulin sensitivity
The old saying that exercise is good for you is a nice one but you need to make sure it is the right type of exercise for the right reasons. Fortunately, the latest studies show that even a modestly strenuous workout can improve hepatic insulin sensitivity in the context of a healthy lifestyle. This is good news for diabetics with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and metabolic syndrome patients. Exercise is also a good way to lower lipid intermediates and increase capillary blood flow. Despite the impressive results, there is still a lot more research to be done.
Several randomized trials are ongoing to test the best approach for diabetes prevention. One of the more promising trials has participants consuming a fibre supplement (resistant starch) for 12 weeks. After completing the trial, hepatic triglycerides were reduced, and the liver possessed a correspondingly reduced fat mass. To put this in a nutshell, consuming fibre has a plethora of health benefits, notably improved hepatic insulin sensitivity. A high fiber diet has also been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, and a reduction in the dreaded lipid triad. Ultimately, a better understanding of the mechanism by which fibre enables improved hepatic insulin sensitivity is needed.
Improves the production of sirtuins
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme that is vital to cellular health. It plays an important role in several energy metabolism pathways. NAD+ is also involved in mitochondrial function. In turn, its depletion may be associated with diseases.
Sirtuins, which are classified as protein deacetylases, use NAD+ to modify proteins. They promote DNA repair, maintain genome integrity, and help protect organisms from disease. Although the role of Sirtuins in aging and anti-aging research is still under study, the activation of Sirtuins by NAD+ shows promising results in preclinical studies.
Previously, research on sirtuins had focused on their biosynthesis. But in the 1990s, Leonard Guarente discovered that SIR2 extended yeast lifespan when activated by NAD+. This discovery spurred further research into the role of Sirtuins in cell metabolism.
Sirtuins are known as “guardians of the genome,” because they are responsible for regulating the cellular homeostasis. When a cell experiences a change in its energy status, sirtuins are activated to trigger a cellular response. Among these are the activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerases. These enzymes, in turn, activate the CD38, a key molecule in the defense against oxidative stress.
In addition, NAD+ is used by Sirtuins to regulate gene expression. As a result, it helps increase insulin levels and improve glucose homeostasis.
Strengthens the DNA repair and recovery
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a coenzyme that is important for many functions in the human body. This small molecule is essential for a wide array of functions, ranging from energy production to the regulation of circadian rhythms. The vitamin has also been found to improve heart function. Aside from being a coenzyme, NAD+ has been shown to have an important role in mitochondrial health. In fact, it may be one of the most important antioxidants in the human body.
In addition to its role in metabolism, NAD+ is important for DNA repair and recovery. It also helps to reduce inflammation in the brain. Several studies have confirmed that a modest dose of the vitamin can extend life span in mice. Among the most notable findings, the supplement had a positive effect on neuroinflammation and normalizes synaptic transmission. Furthermore, the supplement is capable of reducing oxidative stress in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
While the vitamin has been proven to play an important role in our bodies, there are still many questions about its effects on the cellular and molecular levels. For instance, it is difficult to pinpoint exactly which genes are responsible for the enhanced longevity, while many factors seem to be involved.
Rejuvenates the skin health
Nikotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, better known as NAD+, is an antioxidant compound that is important for the skin. It also plays an essential role in cellular metabolism. NAD+ is found in every cell of the body. During the aging process, the levels of NAD+ decline, leading to decreased cellular energy production and reduced DNA repair capacity. In addition, NAD+ deficiency induces cell senescence, which leads to chronic inflammation.
The health and appearance of the skin can be improved through the restoration of NAD+. Topical application of NAD+ precursor can improve the barrier function of the skin. It can also reduce fine lines and roughness. This is because of its ability to protect the cell membranes from free radicals. Moreover, its replenishment helps maintain genomic stability.
Another benefit of the use of NAD+ is the reduction of UV rays, which suppress cellular immunity and induce cellular energy depletion. These factors lead to a decreased wound-healing response and triggers the shedding of the old skin cells. Hence, the rate of cell turnover decreases and the complexion becomes duller. Therefore, it is imperative to protect the skin.
To rejuvenate the health of the skin, the best method is to protect the cells with antioxidants. Vitamin C is a great natural option because it enhances the synthesis of collagen.